Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  

Basis of Presentation


All amounts are presented in U.S. Dollars.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates. The Company’s significant estimates and assumptions include the fair value of financial instruments, stock-based compensation and the valuation allowance relating to the Company’s deferred tax assets.




Investments consist of U.S. Treasury Bills and Notes, which are classified as held-to-maturity, and Certificates of Deposit. The Company determines the appropriate balance sheet classification of its investments at the time of purchase and evaluates the classification at each balance sheet date. All of the Company’s U.S. Treasury Bills and Certificates of Deposit mature within the next twelve months. Unrealized gains and losses are de minimis to the financial statements. As of September 30, 2018, the carrying value of the Company’s U.S. Treasury Bills approximates their fair value, due to their short-term maturities.


Common Stock Purchase Warrants


The Company classifies as equity any contracts that (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) provides the Company with a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement) providing that such contracts are indexed to the Company’s own stock. The Company classifies as assets or liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the Company’s control), or (ii) gives the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company assesses classification of its common stock purchase warrants and other free-standing derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets, liabilities and equity is required.  The Company’s free-standing derivatives consist of warrants to purchase common stock that were issued in connection with its notes payable and private offering. The Company evaluated these warrants to assess their proper classification using the applicable criteria enumerated under U.S. GAAP and determined that the common stock purchase warrants meet the criteria for equity classification in the accompanying condensed balance sheets as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.


Share-Based Payment


The Company accounts for share-based payments using the fair value method. For employees and directors, the fair value of the award is measured, as discussed below, on the grant date. For non-employees, fair value is generally valued based on the fair value of the services provided or the fair value of the equity instruments on the measurement date, whichever is more readily determinable and re-measured on each financial reporting date until the service is complete. Upon exercise of an option or warrant, the Company issues new shares of common stock out of its authorized shares.


The weighted-average fair value of options and warrants has been estimated on the grant date or measurement date using the Black-Scholes pricing model. The fair value of each instrument is estimated on the grant date or measurement date utilizing certain assumptions for a risk-free interest rate, volatility and expected remaining lives of the awards. Since the Company has a limited history of being publicly traded, the fair value of stock-based payment awards issued with a vesting period of more than three years will be estimated using a volatility derived from an index of comparable entities. Option grants with a vesting schedule that is three years or less will utilize the volatility of the Company’s own stock in estimating the fair value of the stock-based award. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of share-based payment awards represent management’s best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. As a result, if factors change and the Company uses different assumptions, the Company’s stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future. In addition, the Company is required to estimate the expected forfeiture rate and only recognize expense for those shares expected to vest. In estimating the Company’s forfeiture rate, the Company analyzed its historical forfeiture rate, the remaining lives of unvested options, and the number of vested options as a percentage of total options outstanding. If the Company’s actual forfeiture rate is materially different from its estimate, or if the Company reevaluates the forfeiture rate in the future, the stock-based compensation expense could be significantly different from what the Company has recorded in the current period.


The weighted-average Black-Scholes assumptions are as follows:


    For the Three Months Ended
September 30,
    For Nine Months Ended
September 30,
    2018     2017     2018     2017  
Expected life     2 years       5 years       4 years       6 years  
Risk free interest rate     2.60 %     1.92 %     2.63 %     1.99 %
Expected volatility     83 %     81 %     82 %     80 %
Expected dividend yield     0 %     0 %     0 %     0 %
Forfeiture rate     0 %     0 %     0 %     0 %


As of September 30, 2018, total unrecognized stock option compensation expense is $4,853,804, which will be recognized as those options vest over a period of approximately four years. The amount of future stock option compensation expense could be affected by any future option grants or by any option holders leaving the Company before their grants are fully vested.


Net Loss Per Share of Common Stock


Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.  Diluted net earnings per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other instruments to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock.  Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share as their inclusion would be anti-dilutive and consist of the following:


    As of September 30,  
    2018     2017  
Options     5,525,834       5,598,497  
Warrants     4,964,205       4,569,688  
Totals     10,490,039       10,168,185  
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

Recent Accounting Pronouncements


In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”), which primarily aligns the measurement and classification guidance for share-based payments to nonemployees with the guidance for share-based payments to employees. ASU 2018-07 also clarifies that any share-based payment issued to a customer should be evaluated under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2018-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. The Company adopted ASU 2018-07 during the three months ended September 30, 2018. The adoption of ASU 2018-07 did not have a material impact on the condensed consolidated financial statements contained herein.


In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-09, “Codification Improvements” (“ASU 2018-09”). These amendments provide clarifications and corrections to certain ASC subtopics including, but not limited to, the following: Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income – Overall (Topic 220-10), Debt - Modifications and Extinguishments (Topic 470-50), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity – Overall (Topic 480-10), Compensation - Stock Compensation - Income Taxes (Topic 718-740) and Fair Value Measurement – Overall (Topic 820-10). The majority of the amendments in ASU 2018-09 will be effective in annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.